UPS just delivered your nice new (or more likely used) Tektronix scope, and now you find
that you don't have a probe. What probe should you get? Which probes will be best for your
new scope? Why do you need a probe anyway?
Why do I need a probe?
A probe lets you connect between the circuit of interest and the input of the oscilloscope. Probes
perform several important functions:
Probes for Every Purpose
- They isolate the circuit from the scope, to minimize the effects of loading on the circuit
- They provide a high-bandwidth, low distortion path for signal information so that the measurements
you make are as accurate as possible.
- They allow you to conveniently and safely connect to almost any point in a circuit.
There are several types of probes; each is designed to work best for certain measurement problems. Probes
can be divided into several categories as follows:
Passive probes are just that (no electronics, just passive resistors, capacitors and cable). Active probes
include amplifiers to buffer and increase the amplitude of very small signals. Voltage probes measure
voltage, current probes measure current. By far the most common type is the passive voltage probe.
That's what we'll concentrate on here.
- Passive Voltage Probes
- Active Voltage Probes
- Passive Current Probes
- Active Current Probes
Types of Passive Voltage Probes
There are several sub-types within the passive voltage probe category. The most important sub-types are:
1X, 10X, and 100X refer to attenuation ratios; a 1X probe does not attenuate the signal, a 10X probe reduces
signal amplitudes by 10X, and a 100X probe reduces signal amplitudes by 100X.
- 1X voltage probes
- 10X voltage probes (most common)
- 100X voltage probes
- High voltage probes
Unless you are measuring very high amplitude signals, attenuation is not a benefit. Attenuation is a side effect
of reducing the loading on the circuit. Loading is inversely proportional to attenuation.
A typical 1X probe will load your circuit with 1 Megohm and 100pf or more. This much capacitance adversely
affects the operation of most circuits.
A typical 10X probe will load your circuit with 10 Megohms and 10-15pf. Most circuits operate correctly with
this kind of probe loading.
For some sensitive circuits, a 100X probe is best. A typical 100X probe will load your circuit with
100 Megohms and only a couple of pF.
Some probes are switchable between 1X and 10X attenuation. This can be handy, but watch out for the
typically much lower bandwidth in the 1X position!
High voltage probes are constructed to make it safe to measure high voltages (1KV and above). They usually
have attenuation ratios of 100X or more. (Note that most 10X probes are rated for a maximum input voltage of
500V. 1X probes will be rated for less. When you need to measure voltage that are higher than this, you
should use a high voltage type.)
Unless you have special needs, you can stick with a 10X probe. 10X is usually the best compromise of
circuit loading and signal attenuation.
Scope Input Connector
Obviously, the input connector on your probe must match the connector on your scope. Otherwise, how will
you use the probe?
There are two common types of connectors on the inputs of Tek scopes, UHF and BNC. UHF connectors are larger,
and are found on older instruments. BNC connectors became the standard for late model letter/number
plug-ins (530 and 540 series scope), and have been standard ever since. All 7000 series plug ins (except
some special purpose units) use BNC connectors.
There are UHF to BNC adapters (and visa versa), but they add a couple of pF to the effective input C of
the scope. Still, if you have a UHF input connector and a BNC probe, an adapter will get you up and
Scope probes have a maximum bandwidth, just like scope input circuits. Use a slow probe on a fast circuit
and you won't see the high frequency portions of the signals. To avoid this problem, you should choose a
probe that is about the same bandwidth (or perhaps a little faster) than your scope. If you are measuring
slow signals, you can use a low bandwidth probe on a fast scope without introducing problems.
The is the most important factor in choosing the correct probe for your scope. The attenuator circuit and
compensation adjustment of your probe must match the input resistance and capacitance of your scope. The
most important function of a probe is to provide a high-fidelity connection for the signal. Correct
compensation insures that the frequency response of the probe/scope combination is flat from very high
frequencies all the way down to DC.
Flat frequency response makes square waves look square. Extra gain at high frequencies makes the front
corners of square waves look spiked or peaked. Not enough gain at high frequencies makes the front
corners of square waves look rounded. For more information on probe compensation look at the following
Scope Probe Compensation
To determine compensation ranges for a specific probe, look at the probe database (on this site):
Notice that there are two columns in the table labeled Compensation Min and Max respectively. These
columns indicate the minimum and maximum capacitance at the scope input for correct compensation of
each probe in the table.
You should choose a probe that can compensate for the input capacitance of your scope. (Because this is
so important, Tektronix scopes have their input characteristics printed on the front panel).
As an example, if your scope has input characteristics of 1 Megohm and 20pF (like the 454 and many others),
you should pick a probe that can compensate to 20pF (such as the P6047).
Buying a Probe
When buying a used probe (on ebay, for example), be sure to ask the seller if all of the accessory items
such as removeable tips, ground leads, and documentation are included. These items often get separated
from the probe, and it can be difficult or impossible to find replacements later.
Unless you own a very unusual scope, you should be able to find many probes that will work with it. Age does
not matter. Brand doesn't either. You can use a Tek probe with a non-Tek scope and a non-Tek probe with a
Tek scope. Tek usually included probes with new scopes. Many probes other than the models originally
supplied with the scope may be used successfully if you use care in selecting an alternate model. Keep the
following in mind when choosing any probe:
- Compensation range
- Connector type
Tek and Tektronix are trademarks of Tektronix, Inc.
Not affiliated with, or supported by, Tektronix, Inc.
Last modified on
1/24/04 1:25:31 PM